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未来电阻器的应用特点和趋势

爱电子2019-01-14 15:39

  电阻器(qi)(qi)是(shi)一个(ge)限(xian)(xian)流(liu)元件,将电阻接(jie)在(zai)电路中后,电阻器(qi)(qi)的(de)阻值是(shi)固(gu)定的(de)一般(ban)是(shi)两个(ge)引(yin)脚,它可(ke)限(xian)(xian)制通过它所连支路的(de)电流(liu)大小,也被称为(wei)电阻。本文将主要(yao)讲述电阻器(qi)(qi)的(de)应(ying)用和发(fa)展趋(qu)势。

  电阻器的应用

  

  电(dian)(dian)阻(zu)(zu)(zu)器(qi)的(de)(de)应用(yong)与它(ta)的(de)(de)特性(xing)密(mi)不可(ke)(ke)分(fen),如固(gu)定(ding)变(bian)(bian)(bian)阻(zu)(zu)(zu)器(qi)和(he)可(ke)(ke)变(bian)(bian)(bian)电(dian)(dian)阻(zu)(zu)(zu)器(qi)应用(yong)就不一(yi)样,固(gu)定(ding)电(dian)(dian)阻(zu)(zu)(zu)器(qi)阻(zu)(zu)(zu)值不能(neng)变(bian)(bian)(bian),可(ke)(ke)变(bian)(bian)(bian)电(dian)(dian)阻(zu)(zu)(zu)器(qi)阻(zu)(zu)(zu)值能(neng)变(bian)(bian)(bian)化。理想的(de)(de)电(dian)(dian)阻(zu)(zu)(zu)器(qi)是线性(xing)的(de)(de),即通过电(dian)(dian)阻(zu)(zu)(zu)器(qi)的(de)(de)瞬时(shi)电(dian)(dian)流与外加(jia)瞬时(shi)电(dian)(dian)压(ya)成正比(bi),用(yong)于分(fen)压(ya)的(de)(de)可(ke)(ke)变(bian)(bian)(bian)电(dian)(dian)阻(zu)(zu)(zu)器(qi);在裸露的(de)(de)电(dian)(dian)阻(zu)(zu)(zu)体上,紧压(ya)着(zhe)一(yi)至两(liang)个(ge)可(ke)(ke)移金(jin)属触(chu)(chu)点(dian),触(chu)(chu)点(dian)位置确定(ding)电(dian)(dian)阻(zu)(zu)(zu)体任一(yi)端与触(chu)(chu)点(dian)间(jian)的(de)(de)阻(zu)(zu)(zu)值。

  最(zui)常(chang)见的(de)电(dian)(dian)阻器(qi)应用无异于(yu)串(chuan)并(bing)联(lian)了。在(zai)很(hen)多的(de)电(dian)(dian)子电(dian)(dian)路(lu)中(zhong),电(dian)(dian)阻器(qi)通(tong)常(chang)串(chuan)联(lian)或并(bing)联(lian)连接,电(dian)(dian)路(lu)设计者可以将几个电(dian)(dian)阻器(qi)与标(biao)准值组合(he)以达(da)到(dao)特定的(de)电(dian)(dian)阻值,对于(yu)串(chuan)联(lian)连接,通(tong)过每个电(dian)(dian)阻的(de)电(dian)(dian)流相同,等效电(dian)(dian)阻等于(yu)各个电(dian)(dian)阻的(de)总(zong)和。

  对(dui)于并联连(lian)接,通过每个电(dian)(dian)阻器(qi)的(de)电(dian)(dian)压是(shi)相同(tong)的(de),等效(xiao)电(dian)(dian)阻的(de)倒数等于所有(you)并联电(dian)(dian)阻器(qi)的(de)倒数值(zhi)之和(he),为了解决更复杂的(de)网络,可以使用基尔(er)霍夫电(dian)(dian)路(lu)定(ding)律。

  以(yi)压敏电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)阻(zu)(zu)(zu)为例,它(ta)是一种具有非线性伏安特性的(de)(de)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)阻(zu)(zu)(zu)器件,主要(yao)(yao)用于(yu)在电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路承受(shou)过压时进行电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压钳(qian)位,吸收多余的(de)(de)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)以(yi)保护敏感器件。不(bu)(bu)同(tong)的(de)(de)使用场合,应用压敏电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)阻(zu)(zu)(zu)的(de)(de)目(mu)的(de)(de),作用在压敏电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)阻(zu)(zu)(zu)上(shang)的(de)(de)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压/电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)应力并不(bu)(bu)相同(tong),因(yin)而对压敏电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)阻(zu)(zu)(zu)的(de)(de)要(yao)(yao)求也不(bu)(bu)相同(tong),注意区(qu)分这种差异,对于(yu)正确使用是十分重要(yao)(yao)的(de)(de)。

  根(gen)据使用(yong)目的的不同,可(ke)将压(ya)(ya)敏(min)电(dian)(dian)阻(zu)区分为(wei)两大(da)类:保(bao)护(hu)用(yong)压(ya)(ya)敏(min)电(dian)(dian)阻(zu),电(dian)(dian)路(lu)功能(neng)(neng)用(yong)压(ya)(ya)敏(min)电(dian)(dian)阻(zu)。压(ya)(ya)敏(min)电(dian)(dian)阻(zu)器(qi)的保(bao)护(hu)功能(neng)(neng),绝(jue)大(da)多(duo)数(shu)应用(yong)场合下,是可(ke)以多(duo)次反复(fu)作(zuo)用(yong)的,但有时也将它做成电(dian)(dian)流保(bao)险丝那样的一次性(xing)保(bao)护(hu)器(qi)件,例如并接(jie)在某些电(dian)(dian)流互感器(qi)负载上的带短路(lu)接(jie)点(dian)压(ya)(ya)敏(min)电(dian)(dian)阻(zu)。

  金(jin)属膜(mo)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)阻(zu)(zu)(zu)是迄今为(wei)止应用较为(wei)广(guang)泛的电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)阻(zu)(zu)(zu),在电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)子行业(ye)和(he)高精度要求(qiu)下的军事航天等领域发挥不(bu)可忽视的作用。金(jin)属膜(mo)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)阻(zu)(zu)(zu)器就(jiu)是以(yi)特(te)种金(jin)属或(huo)合(he)(he)金(jin)作电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)阻(zu)(zu)(zu)材料,用真空蒸(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)发或(huo)溅射的方法(fa),在陶瓷或(huo)玻(bo)璃基本上形成电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)阻(zu)(zu)(zu)膜(mo)层的电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)阻(zu)(zu)(zu)器。这类电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)阻(zu)(zu)(zu)器一般采用真空蒸(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)发工艺制得,即在真空中加热合(he)(he)金(jin),合(he)(he)金(jin)蒸(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)发,使瓷棒表面形成一层导(dao)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)金(jin)属膜(mo)。这种电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)阻(zu)(zu)(zu)和(he)碳膜(mo)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)阻(zu)(zu)(zu)相(xiang)比,体积(ji)小、噪(zao)声(sheng)低、稳定性好,但成本较高,常(chang)(chang)常(chang)(chang)作为(wei)精密和(he)高稳定性的电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)阻(zu)(zu)(zu)器而(er)广(guang)泛应用,同时(shi)也通用于各种无(wu)线电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)子设(she)备(bei)中。

  还(hai)有在一(yi)个理想(xiang)的电(dian)(dian)阻(zu)器(qi)里,电(dian)(dian)阻(zu)值(zhi)(zhi)不(bu)会(hui)随电(dian)(dian)压(ya)或电(dian)(dian)流而(er)改变,亦不(bu)会(hui)因电(dian)(dian)流的突然变动而(er)改变,真实的电(dian)(dian)阻(zu)器(qi)无(wu)法达到这一(yi)点(dian)。如今的内(nei)部设(she)计使(shi)电(dian)(dian)阻(zu)器(qi)在极端的电(dian)(dian)压(ya)或电(dian)(dian)流下能表(biao)现(xian)相对小的电(dian)(dian)阻(zu)值(zhi)(zhi)变化。

  光(guang)敏(min)电(dian)(dian)阻也(ye)是一(yi)个(ge)应(ying)用广泛的(de)(de)电(dian)(dian)阻器,它用硫化隔或硒化隔等(deng)半导体材(cai)料制成(cheng)的(de)(de)特殊电(dian)(dian)阻器,其工作原理是基于内(nei)光(guang)电(dian)(dian)效应(ying)。光(guang)照(zhao)(zhao)愈强,阻值就愈低(di)(di),随着光(guang)照(zhao)(zhao)强度的(de)(de)升高,电(dian)(dian)阻值迅速降(jiang)低(di)(di),亮电(dian)(dian)阻值可小至1KΩ以下。

  光敏(min)电阻属(shu)半导体光敏(min)器件,除具(ju)灵敏(min)度(du)高(gao),反(fan)应(ying)速度(du)快,光谱特(te)性及r值一致性好等特(te)点外,在高(gao)温(wen),多(duo)湿的恶劣环境(jing)下(xia),还能保持高(gao)度(du)的稳定性和可靠性,可广(guang)泛应(ying)用于照相(xiang)机、太(tai)阳能庭院灯(deng)、草坪灯(deng)、验钞机、石英(ying)钟、迷你小夜灯(deng)、光声控开(kai)(kai)关等众多(duo)的自动开(kai)(kai)关控制领域(yu)。

  电(dian)(dian)阻(zu)(zu)(zu)器(qi)的(de)发展方(fang)向是小型化、高可靠性、高稳定(ding)性等,为适(shi)应电(dian)(dian)路集(ji)成化、平面化的(de)发展,对片状电(dian)(dian)阻(zu)(zu)(zu)器(qi)的(de)需(xu)要将明显增(zeng)加,通用型将倾向于发展厚(hou)膜电(dian)(dian)阻(zu)(zu)(zu)器(qi),而精(jing)密型则仍将倾向于薄(bo)膜类中的(de)金属膜和(he)金属箔(bo)电(dian)(dian)阻(zu)(zu)(zu)器(qi)。

标签: 电阻器|压敏电阻|电路
责任编辑:谢希源
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